Tag: life

Staff Surveyor

This topographic map created by geodetic and crew. Upon receipt of all required the developer authorizing documents and necessary projects, the geodesic team begins preparation for surveying the construction site. To do this, create a geodetic network alignment – the future basis for geodetic work. Geodesic works to create horizontal and vertical geodetic rather cumbersome and require not only the output "field", but also work in the office (desk work) for your computer. Set of points a few firmly attached next to the object points, and geodetic work is to determine the exact coordinates and altitude of the items from the existing state geodetic network, which is covered by the city. Special computer programs (for example, Credo, RGS, and others) allow you to equalize received during the surveying measurements and a positioning accuracy alignment network.

After creating geodetic framework for the construction, start by surveying stakeout major axes of the building, fence lines, sheet piling, anchoring on the ground with stakes of temporary roads – all by the geodesic Brigade. Surveyor keeps under control the development of the excavation, excavation volume counts, and controls the depth of development, so as to build a rule of thumb a little bit better not to dig, dig than (Podsypku soil is much more expensive than cutting). After the beginning stages of concrete work, surveyor working hard to stake out all the basic building structure (columns, piers, walls). This so-called stakeout work. A breakdown – this is one of the main types of geodetic works in the building, without the builders would not know where to put the columns, walls, stairs, at what height to lift a particular design, floor, etc. Of course, workers could be put concrete structures "by eye", without a staff surveyor or specialist geodesic.

But then it would not be able to comply with the builders geometric standards SNIP and GOST This, in turn, would lead to the possibility of building collapse, precipitation, and distorted. But in setting out the project in the nature of geodetic work does not end, and vice versa – after workers have established a new design surveyor will check its deviations from the project and commits them to the executive scheme, which then goes to the regulatory authorities (such as construction watchdog Inspectorate). Frequently surveying firm offering executive survey, as a separate service. For example, it can be useful for the customer, if he did not hire a specialized firm to provide construction and prefer full-time surveyor firm contractor. Why? Staff Surveyor construction company can unsaid in his executive documents and reports about a very serious deviations from the project, as this may entail large costs for the "feeding" of his organization for alteration work. Independent geodesic construction firm will be able to control most of the builders impartially and efficiently. So when the construction project is ready, you should create a topographic map (Executive master plan), which will be dealt himself a new object, its communications, roads, entrances, etc. As you can see the construction site without the involvement of specialist, high quality performing surveying work, and perhaps managed, but the result of the workers and foremen would not those on which the designers and customers are expected to construction works.

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The Oil Price

The price of oil is an important fact for economic life in modern life. Indeed, there are many interests around the oil of by means which make any movement that this do to generate more than one noticeable change to economic level and at the level of society in which we live. That is why many scholars of the economy have in mind the price of oil to make your calculations and predictions about the economic trends that mark the world markets in the future. As we can see, the price of oil is an important economic factor which cannot be ignored by anyone intending to have a full vision of the economic movements of today. That is why the majority of economic analyses that show an overview of the directions which will take the economy around the world to give a special place to the oil price as a sensitive factor of change in the movements of the market of today.

In the days of today the oil price starts to become increasingly more expensive and more difficult to bear by all those people who are affected by this factor (that this is actually a fact that affects almost all persons involved in any way in economic movements in the world). Since the price of oil affects one of more products for the operation of the people in the days of today, which is gasoline, main fuel for all means of transport, especially for the maritime, land and air transport. The price of oil becomes more expensive day by day because due to the exploitation that we’ve made this mineral or substance and to the ever-expanding this important natural resource demand, this course has become more expensive. Indeed, the rise in the price of oil has many important factors, of which here we mention two important: every time there is less oil available in existing in the world’s oil reserves and increasingly we extend more demand for this product for the realization of industrial, commercial and domestic tasks. Oil begins to dwindle due to the simple fact that this is not a renewable resource like trees or how can be it animals among many other consumer products.

This means that the price of oil can become more expensive with the passage of time. Indeed, oil can not be planted as the trees are planted, nor can play as animals can do. The restoration of the oil is a process that takes millions of years, time that we do not respect in this time where we exploit it as if this product were not at an end. Is why the oil price tends to be expensive, since increasingly it will be scarcer, and as the laws of supply and demand, say it if demand persists and the bid decreases, the consequence will be the increase in the price. The other factor that makes more expensive the price of oil is that each time we demand more use of this product. The cities of the world tend to grow, and this growth demands the use of more transport vehicles, which use gasoline, gasoline that is petroleum-based. So every time we need more of this product and the same offer is decreasing, which brings as a consequence the increase in the price of oil. Original author and source of the article

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Venezuelan Processes

It has formed a new paradigm that guides common sense of engineers, managers and entrepreneurs, both to imagine new products or processes and to decide on the path to be followed the innovations in existing technologies. Under the previous paradigm of mass production, become universal technological pattern after World War II, it was to achieve maximum homogeneity and a minimum of changes. Members of the Chair of problematic of the Venezuelan administration of the school of administration of Faces, UC, reminiscent in this regard, that it was wasteful with raw materials and energy and thrifty with the use of labor. Scales are pursuing increasingly higher production, and in the majority of cases, the products also tended to become increasingly large. The new criteria for the development of products and processes have changed. On the one hand, be helps maximize certain characteristics: greater flexibility and adaptability to respond to changes in the market; increased modularity level products, to allow various combinations (typical example are the computers) and, at the level of processes, to facilitate growth without idle capacity; steady increase of accuracy to meet strict specifications without waste; a greater validity of decisions, incorporating more and better information to the decision-making processes at all levels, and finally, what is central to the new paradigm, to maximize the customer satisfaction with growing quality, opportunity in delivery, adequate facilities and improvements that respond to their requirements. On the other hand, the change should be oriented to minimize another set of features: reduce or eliminate waste of any kind (materials, energy, recycled effluents, rejections, time, etc.); shorten response times, pursuing the ideal of the system just in time or pulled manufacture by the demand; reduce failures, eliminating possible causes of proactive mode; redesign processes to minimize non-productive time (internal transport, activities that do not add value, etc.

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COP Work

To detect these violations should be applied to compare the instruments in the form of COP-2 prices, indices, values of overhead and profit from their estimates normative values, test the validity of other costs, to control the instrumental measurements of the physical volume of work. When using individual unit prices to be checked validity of their application and scope of work included in these prices. Not allowed unauthorized inclusion in unit prices of the coefficients, increasing rates of consumption of material resources due to inconvenience, complexity and urgency of the work. The procedure of raising factors to the estimated regulated standards in the technical part of the collection corresponding unit prices. The most detailed verification subject acts on Form CF-2, when the construction contracts signed without tenders in the prescribed manner, and in the absence of expert opinion on the construction documents. From acts to form the COP-2 is necessary to without recourse to exclude: – increasing the odds for the reconstruction – the cost of works to address the marriage – the contractor expenses, including taxes and fees attributable to the financial results of the (property taxes, formation and maintenance of housing, cost of infrastructure development contractor, etc.) – the costs associated with predmontazhnymi work – the amount of work not covered by the design-budget documentation. In addition, the regulations in the form of COP-2 in the form of certain costs not be paid to the contractor costs associated with: – The contents of the fire patrol and protection (including non-departmental provided by bodies of internal affairs) – holding surveying during operations; – beautification of the site (cleaning and clearing debris) – training facility for commissioning (washing floors and windows, the cost of detergents, cleaning and removal debris after construction) – the compulsory insurance of property in the means of production – the use of loans and advances to non-construction of the facility; – advertising.

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