Ohno would have to become Toyota adequate the new necessities of the production. The Japanese laborers strong were influenced still by the artisan traditions and relutavam in executing repetitive and static tasks of a line of production to the style of Ford and the North American industries. The change would have to be organizacional and mannering. Ohno needed to promote a deep change in the standards of productive behavior, in such a way Japanese as occidental person. They were customs sufficiently taken root in culture productive, accepted as normal and considered invariant in the absolute opinion of the involved ones with the universe of the industrial production.
The resistance to the system of Toyota, was not only in the internal scope. As much the laborers as the suppliers, were pressured so that they produced more cheap, with bigger rapidity and superior quality. With the time, the resistncias had diminished and with this, it after appeared a spirit of cooperation and motivation the constatao of good productive results. Ohno got the cooperation of the laborers, who had enriched the system contributing with its opinions and, especially, its experiences. They inside offered to its proper ideas and solutions for the problems appeared of the new productive process.
The existing system from now on, started to evolve in constant and gradual way, provoking the envolvement and the contact narrowest them operators of the assembly line with the leading body of the company. It fits to register that the Japanese automotiva industry passed for the experience of the negative growth immediately after the crisis of the oil in 1973, and a time alone entered in collapse. However, then after, the exportations had increased e, comparative to the state of inactivity of the other industries, only the automotiva seemed to enjoy of good luck. In Toyota it was analyzed as to install autonmico nervous system in the proper enterprise organization, that grew quickly.
The Brazilian financial market, as in the entire world, is supported by the basic premise of that the people need to take credit or to invest resources, in this way can classify the customers as being borrowed or investing. The function of rentabilizar the economies and financing the consumption and the investment of people is characteristic proper of the banks with accounts receivable. Most of the Brazilian financial market is taken care of by commercial banks, that is, banks that they possess beyond the accounts receivable, a fan of services and products to offer its customers. In accordance with Xavier (1992), of the industries of services, the bank clerk was the one that more resisted the changes and technological advances, for reasons that include its peculiar history, the complexity of its product & ndash; money & ndash; , the singularity of its technology and the particularitity of its organizacional structure. James Woolsey may not feel the same. The author affirms that before 90 years the banking industry he ahead kept a passive attitude of the market, but was stimulated to change and to review its positioning in function of the elements that compose the new scene: plurality of institutions that commercialize financial products and services; incited dispute for space in the market; customers more instructed, conscientious and selective and the proper challenge to get optimum in terms of results, inside of this new context. In accordance with the research & ldquo; Tariffs Without Mitos& rdquo; , carried through for the global company of consultoria of Accenture management and divulged in September of 2011, for the Modern Consuming magazine, after global the financial crisis of 2008, the banking consumers had become more demanding, had reevaluated the nature of the relationship with the banks and had started to question with bigger vehemence the relation cost-benefit of the services for offered them. The research points that Brazil is the country that presents the third average greater of change of institutions, losing only for Mexico and China. . Hikmet Ersek is often quoted on this topic.
In century XX, during years 70, a new school of organizacional thought started if to develop in the two sides of the Atlantic. It saw the organizations as cultures instead of machines. The methodology and the individual work were seen by the antropolgica optics where the antropologistas then had contributed to analyze the cultures in the corporative environment. Recently Hikmet Ersek sought to clarify these questions. Herskowitz (1948, p.34) saw culture as ' ' a construction that describe the total body of beliefs, behavior, knowledge, rules, values and goals that guide the way of one life povo' '. For Geertz (1973, p.28) culture is understood as: (…) a transmitted model historically of meanings integrated in symbols, a system of conceptions inherited expressed in symbolic terms for the ways that the men if communicate, if perpetuates and develops its knowledge and attitudes in relation to the life. The combinations of these definitions contribute for a visualization of the meaning and the establishment of the behavior of the organizations as well as the internal cognitiva construction of its values. Still in the passed century, the gradual development of the academic area of the cultural organization occurred in 70 years, but it was in years 80 that this area if became popular and passed to be used in the constructions and organizacional management.
The marcante event of this movement was to the publication of the workmanship Peters and Waterman (1982). The authors describe a model of perfect organization (McKinsey Model 7S) creating a strong and unificante culture and at the same time a culture where he has sharing of ideas and principles. The pioneirismo of them propitiated new works that had brought new organizacionais strategies. From this workmanship, some leaders of many organizations desired to know as they could manage the dimension of culture in its companies. Such concepts if had become very known and initiatives of as it is possible to deal with the culture had inside started to be the priority of the companies.
In century XVII, Discardings all deny the knowledge received and salient the power from the reason to decide any species of problem. It is the substitution of the Traditional one for the Rational. No longer century XVIII, the Rationalism reaches its apogee, to be, in the applied following century to natural sciences and finally to social sciences. A field, however not yet had been affected for the rationalization. For even more details, read what Western Union says on the issue. This field was the work. Hamdi Ulukaya does not necessarily agree.
The advent of the machines becomes the work evidently more efficient, however it still did not have provoked the rationalization of the organization and execution of the work. At the beginning of century XX, the pioneers of the rationalization of the work appear and, as in many aspects its ideas they were similar, they had been known as of the School of Scientific Administration or Classic School founding. Since in this beginning of century the companies were managed in total empirical way, for attempts or tradition. The administration principles had been developed as fruit of numerous comments research and experiences in the companies (only correct way). From these results, Taylor (father of the Scientific Administration), Fayol and other administrators and consultants had exactly induced generalizations that had considered valid in any circumstance, because they seemed in agreement the reason.
It does not lack to this body of principles the general matrix of a scientific theory; of homo economicus, of the only profit as objective of the company. The process to standardize is to organize better to control and consequently to manage and to reach goals. The standardization aims at to uniformizar so great, type, quality, dimension and performance, being imposed its obligatoriness all the times that do not come to wound rights, becoming possible the interchangeability of the contracting parties of one all, without, however, to harm the unit of the set. Some benefits of the standardization: Increase of the production; Lesser cost of the production; Improvement of the quality; Satisfaction of the customers and To control processes.
The aspects technician and characteristics of the Project will have to be contemplated in (DCP) the Document of Conception of the Project. Below it follows figure better to illustrate the cycle of a MDL project describing the stages that the project must to fulfill to receive the Reductions Certified from Emisses (RCE): Figure 2: Cycle of a Project of MDL Source: (KIQUMOTO; SOUZA, 2007) As figure above illustrated, the participants of the project effect the fulfilling of the DCP and direct it for Entidade Operacional Designada (EOD) duly recognized for the Executive Advice who will effect an analysis and will direct the project for the approval of the Inter-ministerial Commission of Global Change of Clima (CIMGC). An approved time, is directed for register in the Executive Advice. A national or foreign entity certifys the project with the objective to define the procedures of auditorships of verifications and to assure the transparency in the renderings of accounts of these projects. The Assigned National Agency (AND) is the related CIMGC in Brazil. In the stage of monitoramento, the participants of the project follow a plan established for the methodology of the project, confectioning reports that will be submitted to the EOD for verification and accompaniment. This verification is the revision independent and periodic carried through for the EOD, that also makes the accompaniment of the monitored reductions of the emissions of the GEEs.
Finally, the concession of the certification, is the guarantee yielded in writing for the EOD, certifing that for one determined period of time, determined project reached the reductions of the emissions of verified and proven GEEs as. The participants with this certification, are eligible to require to the Executive Committee the emission of the RCEs, relative the reduction or removal of the GEEs..
UNIONS IN BRAZIL The Brazilian unions had had its gnese under the protective wings of the New State, period where the country was governed by a ditatorial regimen with populist feies, inhaled in the corporative model of Italy fascist. This does not want to say that the working movement was inexistent in Brazil. It occurs that the State, perceiving the possibility of an independent development of the unionism, if anticipated creating atrelada syndical structure to the Ministry of the Work, situation that facilitated its control through the bureaucratic machine of the government. At the time, the anarchic unionism exerted fort influence on the Brazilian unionism, mainly for the fact of the majority of the laborers, in the case of So Paulo, the biggest Brazilian industrial polar region, to be constituted in its majority by originary immigrants of Italy and Spain. Ideologically, the Brazilian unionism, exactly still incipient, was revolutionary, pautando its claims for changes in the social structure, beyond the improvement of the conditions of work and wages. Amongst the mechanisms of control of the system of syndical representation, he appeared the intervention of the Ministry of the Work whenever the Direction violated the norms established.
The proper creation of an union, depended almost that exclusively, of the ministerial approval. However, one of the mechanisms strongest for the maintenance of this system, without a doubt, was the union dues, paid compulsively for all the workers, representing one day of work and distributed, proportionally, to the federacies and the respective unions, of form that became possible the financial sustentation of little representative unions, without it has necessity of an effort of cooptao of the bases for an action politics more effective as classroom agency. Some mechanisms of control had been extirpados with the Constitution of 1988, between them, the power of intervention of the Ministry of the Work and the freedom of creation of unions, respected the limits of performance for sector and city.
In this structure of market competition between the consumers exists. The firm produces a product for which it does not exist substitute next. It has presence of barriers to the entrance of new firms, that is, it is necessary to keep the competitors in potential moved away. These obstacles can be managed by the monopolista through: ) Control on the supply of the substance cousin; b) Legal barriers as registers of patents; c) Governmental licenses and concessions and others. It is important to stand out that, in many circumstances, it is the structure most appropriate for the production of certain goods and services as in the governmental monopolies (Post offices, CESAN).
The legislation of the majority of the countries forbids the monopoly, with exception exerted them by the State, generally in strategical products and services. The monopoly ' ' puro' ' it is a theoretical construction, because, in the practical one, it does not exist. The hypotheses of the model are: ) the pure monopoly or natura, due to high scale of required production, demanding upstream raised one of investments. The monopolista company already this established in great dimensions and has conditions to operate with low costs. Some company very becomes difficult to obtain to offer to the product to a price equivalent to the monopolista firm; b) protection of patents (right only to produce the good). Example: photocopy; c) control on the supply of substance-cousin-keys.
Example: The Alcoa withheld almost all the bauxite mines in U.S.A. (raw material of aluminum). d) tradition in the market. Example: market of clocks: the Japanese had needed to invest much money, during much time, to concur with the tradition of the Swiss clocks. An implicit hypothesis in the behavior of the monopolista is that it does not believe that the high profits that the short-term one gets they can attract competitors, or that the high prices can drive away the consumers; that is, it believes that, exactly in the long run, it will remain as monopolista.
Figure 2 – Diagram of the 6 great losses Source: Adapted of internal document of the ArcelorMittal Inox Brazil the development of the TPM for all company it was presented by the JIPM in 1989, as TPM of third generation, passing the focus for the production system and not only more the equipment. The objective started to be the performance in the eight main losses in the equipment (imperfections, losses for preparations and adjustments, loss for answer sheet change, loss for inicializao, losses for lesser stops and inactivity, loss of speed, losses for defects and retrabalhos and loss for idle time), in the five losses for human factors (loss caused for the administration, loss of operational mobility, loss of line organization, logistic loss of and loss for measurements and adjustments) and three losses of resources of the production (loss caused for matrices, tools and answer sheets, loss of energy and loss of technology). From 1999, the JIPM works with TPM of fourth generation, that must be implemented in all the organization, involving the functions of the headquarters of the company, sectors commercial, of research and development, etc. Acts in the management strategy, with focus in the general system of the company, and with main objective to eliminate the twenty great main losses. ' ' It has three main reasons for which the TPM if spread out so quickly in the Japanese industry and now the same is happening with the whole world: it guarantees drastic results, it transforms the work places visibly and raises the level of knowledge and capacity of the production workers and manuteno' ' as Suzuki (PALM and TENRIO, 2002). 3.1.Pilares of the TPM As said by Yamaguchi (2005), for the elimination of the 6 great losses of the equipment, the 8 assigned following activities are implemented as ' ' 8 pillars of sustentation of the development of TPM' ' (figure 3), considered for the JIPM.
Thus, everything would be a personal and altruistcal devotion. The idea of collective profit and social responsibility does not exist. This happens because the Brazilian not yet incorporated one real condition of citizen with guaranteed rights and social duties to fulfill. Still advantage of everything takes advantage the idea of taking off. The recognition lack as citizen is that it takes the individual to face the duty as a penosa overload and to develop a esquivista attitude to everything what is to have. In the work relations everything this is one ‘ ‘ plate cheio’ ‘ for the preconception and discrimination. ‘ ‘ The professionals of human resources had obtained to seat in the table of strategical negotiations of the company. Already disentailed of the image of human resources department, the RH professionals gain space inside each more important time of the company.
He is at the hands of them, after all, the main asset of the companies: the people. She has a more intense competition in all the sectors. In virtue of the diversity of products and available services, the consumers are more demanding. This requires new behaviors on the part of the companies whom they intend to prosper. It is not of today that globalization became a familiar term; they will potencializaro it or leverage of the professionals became a inescapvel organizacional requirement. To contract, to hold back and to use vital talentos are a basic source of competitiveness. Even though the shareholders are demanding leader administrators and of high quality and well defined enterprise cultures as a future productive enable signal. Each one of these trends impose that the human side of the company is alavancado as a source of competitive advantage.